In addition, different fractions of people wanted to improve India in different ways. A powerful and popular revolt broke out in Northern and Central India in 1857. In the end, we may presume that the revolt of 1857 was the result of a culmination of popular dissatisfaction that had been simmering for a long time against the policies of the British in India – expansion, exploitation and economic drain and humiliation of the Indian spirit by advocating the white- man’s civilizing mission – factors of multiple dimension of direct and indirect, long run and short run … Those were the days of foreign domination. Because, democracy rested only self-respect and individuality of every man. 1. “Our religion is in the Kitchen. It is my purpose to discover why this was. Such works also shocked the Indian conservatism. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s … Published: October 17, 2011 The successive Governor generals appointed by the crown and based at Calcutta expanded the domains of British India over the period of time up the time of Lord Dalhousie, whose conquests against Punjab and Burma pushed the frontiers of the British India against Afghanistan and Burma. The orthodox thought that by the rapid spread of English education, the fabrics of the traditional Indian society should break. That kind of arrangement encouraged the sepoys to feel powerful as well as disloyal. The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops.The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. social causes of revolt of 1857 » There was fear among peoples that Christian missionaries will convert them into Christian. The inroads and encroachments of physical science were equally distasteful and disquieting. Their number, thus; grew considerably. A group of historians and writers has asserted that the Revolt was the result of a widespread and well-organized conspiracy. 3. In India of his time, the individuals were oppressed and down-trodden. There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the Revolt. Any discussion on the reasons behind the Indian mutiny needs to be preceded by what the mutiny actually was. Political cause: Nana sahib was refused pension as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. SUBMITED TO 2. Copyright. Thus he advocated the value of a wider understanding of different religions. It was no more verbal demonstration; the arrogant self-assertion of the white man, which the Hindoo Priesthood could contradict or explaining away the railway cars, which travelled without horses or bullocks, at the rate thirty miles an hour, or the electric wires, which in few minutes carried a message across the breadth of a whole province ”. Sen describes it as "having begun as a fight for religion but ended as a war of independence." To the common man, the principles of the Bhagvat Gita or any such great work remained ever unknown. What were the main causes of Revolt of 1857? Not only shall I do these, but I shall keep may be heart open for all that may come in the future”. However, they could not prove it. It is said that some of the English army officers publicly preached Christianity among their subordinate sepoys. Religious causes 4. Side by side, he preached the message of a spiritual unity. In addition, there were also two important Governor Generals of India whose policies accelerated the growing nationalism among the Indian people and resulted in the Great Uprising. Origin of the Mutiny . 1 Administrative Reasons for Failure of 1857 Revolt. They were interested to drain the resources of the nation. However, the uprising spread very quickly all over the northern and central regions of India and soon the rebellion by the civilian population started in a significant number of military towns of India such as Allahabad, Cawnpore, Delhi, Lucknow, Meerut, Peshawar and many other towns. Arrival of East India Co in India The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. Revolt of 1857 is known as the biggest revolt by Indians against the foreigners, forcing them to leave our motherland India. Although it is exaggeration, it laid the seeds for Indian nationalism. 1. This essay will analyse all these causes in a more detailed way (From lectures, What Are The Four Major Developmental Theories, Literature Review: Layout And Ambiance Of A Department Store, What Are The Four Major Theories Of Development. ….Stanley Wolpert . The Belur Math near Calcutta became the center of the Ramakrishna Mission. Gradually, their activities began to increase. D) increased pressure on agricultural land View Answer / Hide Answer When the British army could not show meritorious performance in the Crimean War, the Indian sepoys lost regard for them as good fighters. yet much less than a first war of Independence. It was mainly fought against the biggest East India Company which acted as the supreme power at that time. Stated thal heirs adopted without the approval of the Compay would only inherit the private property of the owner and the territories would be seized by the Company. The 1857 war of Independence was the culmination of various political, economic, social and military causes which burst forth in the from of the cartridge controversy, finally resulting in the Indian Sepoy Mutiny where a soldier named Mangal Pandey was the first to break rank. It started as the uprising of the soldiers of the Bengal Presidency Army that aimed to expel the British rule from the territory of India. Fourthly, the British Government interfered with the religious beliefs of the sepoys. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. Their future appeared uncertain. The British Government abolished the rights of the landlords at many places in northern India. The revolt of 1857 suffered from a weak leadership. The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. The policy of the British Government was to exploit the wealth of India. “The Revolt of 1857” Amit Mishra Class – 8th (B) Roll No. These of the adopted sons of the dead rulers who lost their thrones or pensions became the sworn enemies of British. The Britishers, who were the rulers of the then India, did not care for its development. The English educated young people came under modern influences and began to criticize the superstitions in their own society. in 1849, Revolt of the Santhals (1855-56), Kol uprising (1831-32) etc. causes of revolt of 1857 1. Disclaimer They were unemployed. The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed as follows: The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. The British considered themselves invincible and their empire unassailable. Introduced by Lord Dalhousie. Although some Historians claim 1857 revolt as just an Sepoy mutiny, V. D. Savarkar says it as First War of Independence. To the orthodox, he condemned in strong terms. Believe it or not, it was the ‘Enfield Rifle’. Nana Saheb, his nephew Rao Saheb, Nana’s support.Tatya Tope, Rani of Jhansi Lakshmi Bai, the Rajput leader Kunwar Singh, the Mughal Emperor’s follower Feroz Shah, and Oudh Nawab’s disciple Ahamadullah, and several others began to prepare for a struggle. During the period between 1820 and 1856 East India Company acting on the behalf of the British government had been actively maintaining a number of reforms and policies in India. The revolt was led by exiled princes and displaced landlords and although being a popular revolt, it failed due to lack of, The Great Rebellion of the Indian people of 1857 became the topic of debates among historians. The British authorities could feel the sentiment of the sepoys, but did not care for it. The Mutiny, Indies was unsuccessful due to Portuguese and Dutch control over the spice trade. There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. A social discontent began to grow. As the sepoy army raised the banner of revolt, the princes and the people joined their hands with them. For the first time the education of the Hindoo and the Mohammedan females, took during the administration of Dalhousie, a substantial recognized shape.”. Otherwise, there could be no good work in life. Subsidiary alliance and Doctrine of Lapsepolicy hampered the interests of the rulers of the native states 3. Causes Of Revolt Of 1857 1396 Words | 6 Pages. Read More. The revolt of 1857, popularly known as "The First War of Independence", burst due to many reasons. That being so, man should concern himself with living and livelihood as much as with the realization of divinity. The West appeared to him as the home of a material civilization. The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule. The British East India Company had recently introduced the Enfield rifle; the cartridge of the new rifle had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and pig fat. The revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. On 9th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled. For this, they formulated many policies, political, economical and religious. He knew that superstitions had destroyed much of Hindu spiritually. According to him: “Most alarming of all were the endeavors made, during Dalhousie’s administration, to penetrate the Zenana with our new learning and our new customs. This was why Laxmibai's son who was adopted was denied the throne. This hurt all sections of society. At many places, the British revenue system proved very hard for the common people. Causes of Revolt of 1857. While mutinies and revolts were not uncommon in India at this time, they were usually largely uncoordinated. She became restless with a spirit of vengeance. The peasants suffered due to high revenue demands and the strict revenue collection policy. That led to much discontent. Higher philosophies were the monopoly of the learned. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). The policy of taxing lands belonging to temples and mosques lent further … Rumors spread that they might compelled in some form or other to embrace Christianity. They regarded the British Government as the enemies of the Indian people. Revolt of 1857 in India against the British Raj remains one of the most significant events in the colonial history of India. It is true that it was India’s actual or official rebel against the prevailing British Raj it is also true that the revolt was not formed because of one single factor, many small but significant factors led to the Revolt of the 1857. One of the well-known incidents of the Mutiny was in the town of Cawnpore where, The main cause of the rebellion is considered to be the East India Company’s exploitative and oppressive policies towards the Indian native soldiers – Sepoy. Write an article on the early career of Mahatma Gandhi, Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. In that year there were a series of uprising which were known by British historians as ‘the Indian mutiny’ and by Indian historians as ‘The War of Independence’ these different names for the same event show how history can be a matter of interpretation. The Revolt of 1857 covered the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. Dalhousie had even desire to drive out the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II from Delhi in order to extinguish the Mughal dynasty. Almost from the beginning of the British rule, the Christian missionaries tried to preach Christianity among the people. The mysterious bread and the lotus moved from hand to hand as the symbol of revolution, carrying with them a call to rise. They should be viewed together. It was the most remarkable single event in the history of India after the establishment of British Rule. The sepoys were the defenders of the Empire. That was too much for the Hindu conservatives to tolerate. 3.1 Lack of Societal Alternative The religious sentiments of Muslims and Hindus were greatly hurt by such stories. In the right time, they came forward to create discontent in the minds of their countrymen. It was far more than a mutiny…. The Causes of the War. Unpopular revenue settlement Those small officers among the sepoys, who became popular with their man, were suspected by the British army officers and removed from services. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. The following were some of his notable ideas: Firstly, he wanted to bring spiritually to the mind and the heart of the mass of people. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ what are the causes of the revolts of 1857 Since the greased cartridge contained the animal fat, as the name suggested, the fat came from all types of animals, cows and pigs included. The most important cause of popular discontent was the British policy of economically exploiting India. It was the introduction of the Enfield rifle with the Greased Cartridges. Their economic misfortune made them the enemies of the new rulers. Causes of 1857 Revolt. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. The incident of the Enfield rifle signaled for a military revolt. Indian people began the uprising because they were cruelly exploited by the British colonialists. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. This displayed a new, never seen before unity among the people against the British rule, outcomes. They had no self respect. But the Government made it compulsory for all to go to any place outside India, when necessary. Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. » Introduction of the cartridge which was believed to coated with pigs and cows skin which is strictly prohibited for Muslims and Hindu respectively. The sepoys discovered a meaning behind the whole affair. They one by one became victims of British expansionism 4… Causes of the Revolt of 1857. The traders were also paid less. The military caps contained leather strip, which the orthodox sepoys did not like. Religious causes 4. The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. In the post-Revolt period, to maintain supremacy in India, British followed the policy of communal disharmony. While discontent against the British rule was growing among the different section of the populations, the Indian sepoys in the British army were getting restless. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. 1857 revolt was not only a outcome of religious interference but it was a last nail in the coffin. Controversy of the Enfield Rifle. The sepoys also came to believe that in no way was an English soldier superior to an Indian sepoy in fighting qualities. They denied the use of the fat of caws or pigs only cartridge. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ to some British historians—“a wholly unpatriotic and selfish Sepoy Mutiny with no native leadership and no popular support”, said Sir John Seeley. The causes of the Great Revolt of 1857 and Sepoy Mutiny may be studied in the following heads: Political cause: Major political cause for the outbreak of the Revolt … When the atmosphere was surcharged with an anti-British feeling the episode of the greased cartridges provided … For the British the event of 1857 were a revolt against their authority, PACIFICATION REVOLT, A NATIONALIST UPRISING, OR AS A WAR OF INDEPENDENCE? Way for the first, nor a War of Indian Independence. that proportion, Western! 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